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The two major
factors in the collapse itself were the fires and the lack of
fire proofing around the trusses and some columns. With fireproofing, the
floor system was rated for 2 hours of continuous fire.
Without it, that time is cut dramatically.
test results are used by conspiracy theorists to suggest the
collapse couldn't have happened because, if you note the test
under "Failure to support load" there are three asterisks
(***) which indicates that failure did not occur. What
they don't stress is the fact that all four tests have fire
proofing on the trusses. Note the fire rating with 1/2 inch
spray on fire proofing is 45 minutes. Some trusses and
columns in the towers impact zone had none.
Below is evidence from
an A&E documentary 'Inside the Twin Towers' that some
fireproofing may have been off well BEFORE the planes hit.
used in the NIST report below.
Faulty Fireproofing Is
Reviewed as Factor in Trade Center Collapse
By JAMES GLANZ with MICHAEL MOSS
"Large areas of fireproofing are missing from the core
columns in some of the photographs, and the architect
who took them, Roger G. Morse, a consultant in Troy,
N.Y., said his work had shown that the fireproofing did
not stick properly. But Mr. Reiss said the problems were
caused by the swaying of the buildings in the wind and
the impact of elevator cables against the beams. "It
was an ongoing maintenance headache," he said.
Although measures were repeatedly taken to prevent the
problem, he said, "every March and April when you had
these windstorms and the building rocked back and forth,
you would still knock some of the fireproofing down."
In an interview, Mr. Morse said the problems were far
more widespread than that, probably because the
fireproofing had been applied improperly to rusty steel.
Mr. Morse, who at the time of his inspections was a
consultant to the manufacturer of the fireproofing, said
his examinations had never reached above the 78th floor
in either tower, but that the nature and dimensions of
the problem convinced him the failings of the
fireproofing would be found on virtually all parts of
the buildings. Investigators think the planes struck
around the 90th to 94th floors of the north tower and
the 78th to 84th floors of the south tower.
Mr. Morse said his inspections on several floors also
found problems with the fireproofing of the lightweight,
weblike trusses that held up the floors. He said his
inspections, which began in 1986 and continued
intermittently until June 2000, showed stretches of the
tubelike structural steel supporting the trusses without
any fireproofing, and other areas of extremely thin
Port Authority officials dismissed those allegations,
saying that they doubted the photographs were
representative of the entire building and that
fireproofing on the trusses was regularly replaced and
upgraded whenever there was a major renovation or a
change of tenants."
One of the BIG
lies in the "truth" movement is that UL certifies steel. An
ex-employee named Kevin Ryan, who worked as a water tester
at UL, said "The
buildings should have easily withstood the thermal stress
caused by pools of burning jet fuel."
He says he
knows this because UL certified
of the World
Trade Center and that someone from the company who was connected with the UL testing
told him this fact.
Now for some
facts the "truth" movement doesn't tell you.
doesn't certify steel
like a steel truss or column. They certify assemblies. That means
they certified the total assembly, all put together. They
also didn't replicate the impact levels. They replicated a
floor system with fireproofing as it would have been before
the impact. They also tested it with various fireproofing thicknesses.
(See above UL test results) The test trusses were physically undamaged and had intact
fireproofing for the purpose of standard rating. What this
means is that
Mr. Ryan doesn't even know what his former employer does, much
less what it did during the World Trade Center investigation. Maybe
that's why they fired him...
The other lie in
the "truth" movement is the characterization of what the
NIST said was the cause of the collapse.
1) The NIST
NEVER said burning jet fuel was the cause of the collapse.
Only that it was a factor
2) If the
assembly stayed together, it only SUPPORTS the NIST
hypothesis that the trusses pulled the columns in.
NIST Tests Provide Fire
Resistance Data on World Trade Center Floor Systems
National Institute of
Standards & Technology
Aug 27, 2004 10:14
The Commerce Department’s National Institute of
Standards and Technology today reported that results
from a series of four fire resistance tests conducted
this month on composite concrete-steel trussed floor
systems typical of those used in the World Trade Center
towers showed that the test structures were able to
withstand standard fire conditions for between one and
two hours. The tests are part of NIST’s building and
fire safety investigation of the WTC disaster on Sept.
The 1968 New York City building code – the code that
the towers were intended but not required to meet when
they were built – required a two-hour fire rating for
the floor system.
Shyam Sunder, lead investigator of the NIST WTC
investigation, explained that the four laboratory
tests provide only a means for evaluating the relative
fire resistance rating of the floor systems under
standard fire conditions and according to accepted test
procedures. Sunder cautioned, “These tests alone
cannot be used to determine the actual performance of
the floor systems in the collapse of the WTC towers.
However, they are already providing valuable insight
into the role that the floors may have played in causing
the inward bowing of the perimeter columns minutes
before both buildings collapsed.”
“The fire conditions in the towers on 9-11 were
far more extreme than those to which floor systems in
standard U.S. fire rating tests are subjected,”
Sunder said to a group that gathered to watch
yesterday’s final test at Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
in Northbrook, Ill. “Our investigation’s final
assessment of how the floor system performed in the WTC
fires also must consider factors such as the combustible
fuel load of the hijacked jets, the extent and number of
floors involved, the rate of the fire spread across and
between floors, ventilation conditions, and the impact
of the aircraft-damaged towers’ ability to resist the
fire,” Sunder said.
All four WTC floor system fire tests used the
standard procedure known as ASTM E119 for rating the
fire resistance of a building structural unit such as a
floor system, column or beam under prescribed
conditions. The tests were conducted as part of a
NIST contract at two separate UL fire test laboratories
to take advantage of the different capabilities
available at these facilities.
The first two tests, conducted earlier this month at
the UL facility in Toronto, Canada, looked at the fire
performance of 11-meter (35-foot) floor systems coated
with a near-uniform 19-millimeter-thick (0.75-inch)
layer of fireproofing material. This is representative
of the span size and as-applied average fireproofing
thickness of the floor systems in the WTC towers.
Kevin Ryan is
the editor of the "scholars" Journal of 911 Studies
and one of the "peers" who review their so called "peer"
reviewed papers like the
paper. It took the "scholars" months to debunk
there own paper which Mr. Ryan should have debunked himself.
Something which took me about 2 minutes.
Since we are
on the subject of fire proofing, let me touch on something which keeps being repeated by the so called "scholars".
They keep suggesting that lease owner Larry Silverstein had
a very good reason to blow up the towers.
My impression has been that there were a couple of
problems with the towers and it may have been that
they were chronic problems. One of course was that it
was laden with asbestos and that any proposal to
remove that asbestos which was used as a coating on the
steel as I understand it would have been a gargantuan
task at incredible expense. Can anyone imagine
for example of constructing scaffolding around a 110
story building? And second of all that there were
difficulties with occupancy that Larry Silverstein
wasn’t getting a full return on his investment from
the ordinary use of the buildings, because a tremendous
large numbers of offices were unoccupied. Whole floors
and sections of the buildings.
The fact is that asbestos in the towers was limited to
floors only up to the 38th floor of WTC 1 and it was
encapsulated. There was no asbestos in WTC2 .
materials were considered for the sprayed thermal
insulation. The exterior columns required insulation not
only for fire protection but also to control column
temperatures under service conditions. Alcoa recommended
for the exterior columns the use of a sprayed material
produced by U.S. Mineral Products, Co. known as
BLAZE-SHIELD Type D. The same material was eventually
selected for the floor trusses and core beams and
columns. This product, however, contained asbestos
fibers. On April 13, 1970, New York City issued
restrictions on the application of sprayed thermal
insulation containing asbestos. The use of BLAZE-SHIELD
Type D was discontinued in 1970 at the 38th floor of WTC
1. The asbestos-containing material was subsequently
encapsulated with a sprayed material that provided a
hard coating. A green dye was added to the encapsulating
material so that the asbestos containing SFRM could be
identified. Thermal protection of the remaining floors
of WTC 1 and all of WTC 2 was carried out using
BLAZE-SHIELD Type DC/F, a product that contained mineral
wool (glassy fibers) in place of the crystalline
asbestos fibers. On the basis of tests, it was reported
that the thermal properties of BLAZE-SHIELD Type DC/F
were equal to or "slightly better" than those of
BLAZE-SHIELD Type D"
So much for
asbestos, now what about the occupancy...
May 31, 1998
the market for office space in
midtown has tightened and rental
rates increased, tenants have
been looking to downtown as a
cheaper alternative. Over the
last year, those seeking large
blocks of space have been
finding them at the trade
center, which had many vacancies
as a result of the 1993
terrorist bombing and the
shrinkage of the financial
industry in the early part of
''In January 1997 we had about
an 80 percent occupancy rate,''
said Cherrie Nanninga, director
of real estate for the Port
Authority of New York and New
Jersey, which owns the complex.
Twenty percent of 10.5 million
square feet of space is 2.1
million, which would be a
substantial building by itself.
But as a result of the last
year's work, Ms. Nanninga, said
the complex is over 90 percent
occupied and expects to it reach
the 95 percent mark by the end
of the year. That, she said,
would be about as full as the
center is likely to get, since
there is almost always someone
moving in or out. ''Ninety-seven
percent occupancy would be full,''
said Ms. Nanninga, whose name is
As Real Estate Director, a
position Mrs. Nanninga has held
since 1996, the occupancy
rate at the trade center has
risen from 78 percent to a
healthy 98 percent, retail
soared in the trade center's
mall, and available office space
in the Newark Legal Center has
nearly been filled.
Today, only about 250,000 of
the 10.4 million square feet of
office space in the trade center
remains vacant. And the
legal center has an occupancy
rate of over 99 percent.
yet another example of what the "scholars" want to spend
millions investigating. I don't want my child paying one
cent just because these "scholars" do sloppy research or
have hidden political agendas. Because with the 8.4 trillion
national debt, the millions they want spent will be paid by
our children. It's cheaper to just send me a thank you at
thing, if making money off the murder of 3000 people mean
you committed the murder, does that also mean losing money
off the murder of 3000 people mean you're innocent?